Some points from the book I've been reading "Inclusive Urban Design - Public Toilets" by Clara Greed.
- Public toiletes are a necessary component for users of the built environment in enabling user friendly, sustainable, safe, equitable and accecssible cities. Areas of health, sustainability and equality are key reasons to providing better toilet provisions.
- public toilets can be part of the solution to urban problems. Totally inclusive toilets are not universal (one toilet fit all), as ther are many local situations and variables.
- common problems: small narrow cubicals with inward opening doors giving a small gap between toilet bowl and the door. limited space.
- the increasing ageing population who generally need to go to the washroom more, and women's needs, gives clinical and public health reasons for increased toilet provision.
- many third world nations do not use water-based sewage system. thus flush and forget approach is not approiate to adopt in these countries.
- In history: washrooms used to be centralized in a city (communal) now: everyone has their own washroom at home
- our current water based sewage system came from Victorian time, and we currently still rely on this system, but is it appropriate?
- sponsorship can levy costs of providing washroom facilities.
- dry non water based systems: uses sand, soil/earth/ ash.
= Henry Moule of Dorchester patented the earth closet in 1850 which absorbed adn neutralised human waste.
- environmentalist are now re-evaluating the worth of traditional dry system.
- poor materials and poor maintenance and limted attendance and survelliance is a recipe for diaster in public washrooms
- provision of washroom facilities has shown positive relations in increasing sales. This is related to the increase of visitors. (At stores)
- locking systems creates problems of people being locked inside washrooms ...
-religious and cultural concerns means that facilities can not be a complete unisex system. (especially when Canada is multi-cultural)
- visually impaired groups are concerned about the whiteness of toilet tiles and apparently it is difficult to find the door or the rail or the bowl if everything is gleaming white. Colour and contrast needs to be taken seriously in creating accessible toilet design.
- different countries have different methods of using the washroom i.e. squating, thus the pedestal is not the appropriate solutions for all cultures. (But we are predominatly looking at the Canada for my major project)
- also some coutnries don't use toilet papers, but uses water to wash themselves afterwards.
- look up: two pit power flush toilet technology - Sulabh Indian Toilet
- Water based system is not sustainable (3L per flush)
- accessible toilets should be located in relation to accessible routes to reflect people's movement between adn within buildings (p162)
- space for helpers
- hoist (p168)
- a unisex section (family section/baby change) should be placed between the males and females section.
- no stairs, no excessive ramps, should be at grade (on ground level) use ramps only when no alternative is possible, People with arthiritis cannot cope with ramps thus handrailsa nd gentle steps should also be provided when necessary.
- too much sunlight can be problematic in terms of smell and hygiene.
- good lighting is related to less crime
visual perceptions of privacy, visibility and survelliance.
- when testing, test on disabled men and women as they have differnet needs! also consider mothers with prams.
prams: 550-650mm * 100- 1450 mm (including the pusher)
double prams: 850- 1000mm x 850 -1450 mm
look up: Goldsmith (2000) manoeuvering space for wheelchairs and pushchairs (but this does not consider larger motorised wheelchairs)
- creative solution in placement of women and men facilities so that women are not intimidated and discouraged from using the facilites due to proximity of men washroom and its potential "unsavoury clientele"
- women need double floor space (than men) to acheive equality for places to pee.