Evaluating the impact of NGO’s on rural poverty alleviation.
Uganda Country Study - 1990’s
NGO’s have helped relieve widespread suffering
Provided facilities and services other wise not available
Shown that successful development projects require a high level of participation from the intended beneficiaries, an active contribution in their implementation and management, and should rest on the utilization of local resources and skills
Uganda’s rich soil ands and all-year round rainfall make it a very fertile country
Average urban household spends 2.25 times as much as the average rural household
Lowest levels of expenditure are found in the Northern and Eastern regions
Studies suggest at least 60% of urban households are in a serious state of poverty
1988 Study: In Kampala the minimum monthly income should be USh 57,570 for basic needs. The average government wage and salaries paid is USh 3127
In 1988 30% of people coming as refugees
1990 levels: 70% of the rural population is made up of poor peasants.
ActionAid Study: 75% of farmer’s cash income comes from selling crops or livestock and beer.
One third of farmers don’t harvest enough to sell at all
UNICEF Study: Complex relationship between lower levels of education, limited access to land and limited access to other productive assets needed to raise agricultural productivity levels all reinforce poverty
Also to consider absence of credit and marketing and transport problems
TO RESEARCH: Oral re-hydration methods
Among the poor majority, about one quarter of children were underweight and/or stunted
Malnutrition is more prevalent in the northern part of the country
Principal cause of food shortages and severe incidents of malnutrition has been political, social and civil unrest
The poorest groups simply do not have access to sufficient land in order to provide an income which will raise them above the poverty line
60% of Kampala’s population are slum dwellers
Only 27% of Kampala’s households have access to piped water into their houses or their property
Overall, in Uganda, only 8% of homes are supplied with electricity and permanent water supply. Figures fall to 3-4% in rural areas
“The most serious problem of the health care system is not the theoretical spread of facilities buts its poor state of repair, together with inadequate numbers and training of (usually demoralized) staff and the lack of drugs and equipment”
“…Education is in deep crisis”
Decline in the quality of education with declining facilities and untrained and poorly paid teachers.
Cost of schooling is a major problem
World Bank suggests that some one million people are physically or mentally disabled in Uganda
“As parents die so children are left orphans to be cared for (if possible) by members of the extended – and increasingly over-stretched – family.”
Children are living with their grandparents or on their own, with no one physically capable of tending the fields and growing the crops necessary merely for subsistence
“Inadequate though the data are, they provide support for the increasingly-shared view in Kampala that the economic growth which has so far been achieved has not led to any significant reduction in poverty or to a rise of real incomes of poor families and households and that it has widened income distribution.”
“The poor appear to be bypassed in the current growth spurt”
“Donors have a bias to fund projects which have a higher likelihood of succeeding..”
The West Acholi Cooperative Union Engineering Workshop p.46
Health delivery structures and income-generating activities
Due to civil strife and the Aids pandemic, there are now entire household made up of “dependents” (Elderly and minors)
Study done in 1990’s. What has become of these now grown children?
Estimated that 3% of income is spent on alcohol and tobacco, compared to the 2% spent on milk, cheese and eggs.
Amount spent on education and health is half of what is spent on drinks and tobacco
The voice of the people
Who and how do Ugandans identify as “being poor”.
Generally considered poor if you are unable to pay school fees and/or to buy soap on a relatively regular basis
In the poorest districts, skipping lunch is a common practice
People are better at identifying who the poor are than any kind of numeric indicator
“Opinions were divided over whether it was more disgraceful to work no someone else’s field or to be unable to send one’s own child to school.
“One way or another, it was agreed that poverty takes a heavy toll on pride and self respect.”
Who are the poor and vulnerable?
Orphaned, displaced and abandoned children
About 784 000 or 10% of children below age of 15 are considered orphans. (1990)
“It is common for women who divorce to have to leave behind their children as a condition for remarrying
Some children are sent to the streets by their parents/guardians to earn a living
About 2/3 of street children contributes money to their household
“What makes the disabled particularly vulnerable is not their disability, but the attitude of people”
“According to traditional beliefs in several parts of Uganda, disability has a supernatural origin. Symbolizes a curse which has struck a particular person but is most likely weighing on the whole family”
Physical disability is assumed to go hand in hand with mental deficiency, so little effort is made to educate handicapped children or even treat them as persons
Not an exaggeration to say disabled women are likely to represent the most miserable group of society as they are discriminated against because of their gender AND their disability.
What has been happening to the incomes of the poor?
Smaller peasants substantially shared the relatively rapid growth of Ugandan agriculture between 1986 and 1992. This led to a rise in the supply price for their labour and in turn a reduction of rural poverty.
Sources of Future Growth
There needs to be an emphasis on agriculture as a means to increase per capita GDP.
Agriculture represents a potent force for poverty reduction in Uganda
Low yield rates for almost all crops in Uganda. How can we increase yields? (tools?, processes?)
Coffee (Number 1 export. 1990)
Major staple food in high rainfall areas of Uganda
Millet, maize, sorghum and rice
Millet is important due to its high nutritional value, high tolerance for draught and they can be easily stored
Roots and Tubers
Cassava and sweet potatoes, both staple foods. Rank second and third respectively among food crops in Uganda
Groundnut (peanut) and Simsim (sesame)
Kasese as a main vegetable growing area
Distribution of Labour Force (1990 values)
Most Ugandans in the rural economy are employed in agriculture
Most of the agricultural employment is in household farming.
Which Employment Categories are poor?
Greatest concentration of poverty is in the group of smaller household farmers
Economic and social returns to primary education are significantly higher than rates of return for secondary and tertiary education.
Access to good quality primary education contribute significantly to poverty reduction
Families tend to be better fed and the children less likely to die, the more educated the mother is
Education for girls is crucial for the healthy development of a family
Link between poverty and poor health is very direct
Gains from adequate health care are particularly significant for women of childbearing age.
Curative health care disproportionally benefits better off families. Focus should be placed on primary and preventative health care.
Development of the Rural Areas
Emphasis on agricultural research and extension, rural roads, and water supply should be areas of high public expenditure priority in order to impact positively on poverty reduction.
The rehabilitation of feeder roads should be a high priority, as this will facilitate the transportation of farm and nonfarm inputs. Better roads will also allow for goods to be distributed at a faster pace throughout Uganda.
A Strategy for Reducing Poverty
Policies that deliver key services to the poor should be placed. By investing in human capital, it ensures that the poor are able to participate equitably in Uganda’s economic growth.
Improved productivity of agricultural labor hinges critically on the expansion of primary education
Feasibility Study on Production and Provision of Wheelchairs and Tricycles in Uganda
Focus on types of disabilities and the need for mobility devices
About 30% of persons with disabilities had mobility difficulties. Almost 12% had visual difficulties and 13% reported to having hearing problems/deafness
Only 2% of the 30% of people with mobility difficulties have assistive devices.
Children who use mobility devices designed for adults are at risk of harming themselves.
Need for developing new wheelchairs designed to fit children
Wheelchairs need to be functional, durable and fitted to the local environment. Spare parts and repair have to be locally available.