Edited by: John Swain, Sally French, Colin Barnes, Carol Thomas
P14 - Problems faced by PWD (people with disabilities) were not caused by personal impairements, but by the way society was exclusively arranged for able-bodied living: "It is not beacuse of our bodies that we are immobile - but becayse of the way that the means of mobility is organized that we cannot move. It is not because of our bodies that we live in unsuitable housing - but it is because of the way that our society organises its housing provision that we get stuck in badly designed dwellings."
P21 - Impairment v.s. Disability
Disability: as a social phenomenon; the restrictions of activity caused by impairment;
Disability: social disadvantages and exclusion that PWD with impairments faces in all areas of life (1990, 1996)
P22 - Disabling social barriers in lives of PWI (people with impairments) can be identified and challenged b/c socially created barriers can be dismantled
Views on Disabilities
Maxist / Materialist View: Finkelstein 1980, Oliver 1990, Barnes 1991, Barnes et al. 2002, Barton 1996
Socio-structural barriers that disadvantage and exclude people with impairements rise with the marxist and materialist interpretation of world. As everyone 'sells' their labour power to society (work, production) if you can't sell these powers on normal / average terms = excluded from opportunity to be independent - and this forms the basis of social standing, merit, personal identity.
Postmodernist/ Structuralist view: Shakespeare 1997, Corker 1998, Coker and French 1999, Corker and Shakespeare 2002,
being /becoming PWD is about being socially constructed and positioned as such by those who can excercise power through forms of knowledge. There is nothing about individual's body, character or behaviour that would predispose them to being disabled. Instead, those with authority who conferred them by status and legitmacy of their knowledge (doctors, state administration, legislators) can impose the category of 'disabled' onto an individual.
P25 - Disability is a form of social oppression involving the social imposition of restrictions of activity as PWI and the socially engendered undermining of their psycho-emotional wellbeing
P63 - Solution to problem of disability does not lie inclinical tinkering with 'broken bodies' but in systematic social change.
P135 - Inaccessible Buildings, Transport, Information, Restricted access to employment
P146 - Technology should not segregate PWD into their homes
- "With appropriate technology, we can become part of the 'main-stream of life' and 'contribute fully in society' (UPIAS 1981:1)
While increasing reliance on technology can be oppresive and emanciopating depending on social use
P159 - "Many disabled people have little contact with others and live very isolated lives - in the absence of more meaningful social transformation, the Internet provides another mean of communicating and connecting with others, a means that cumverts many of the barriers to disabled people's mobility"
P161 - language is not just the means of communicating with each other. It is the means of forming and refining ideas. It is the medium for understanding, questioning and developing thoughts and discussion. It is the means of being included, having a voice, and excercising influence.
P162 - Invitations and agendas that are inaccessible to people with reading impairements and follows with unintelligible fast-paced meetings where rapid access to ideas adn questions provides the basis for inclusion.
There are physical environment barriers and communication barriers.
Aphasia - Language impairement
- difficult when people talk all at once (noise)
- communciation barrieres: lacak of flexibility inteaching methods and creativity in including people in office based communications
Attitude barriers: People equal language impairments with having nothing to say / stupid
Information barriers: Info presented ins tyle / format that can not be understood
TIME barriers : people with communication impairment requrie a slower tempo of interpersonal communication
P164: Stories are important means of expressing and affirming who we are, inevitably influencing how others interact with us. Telling, constructingm revisiting, and developing stories are also an important way of understanding changes to life's biography and incorporating disability into evolving identities. But how does one shape and share stories of identity without language?
- Self help support groups
access to sense of personal and social confidence is a pre-requisite to asserting one's voice
- Training for those with communication impairements, and training for people without on how to be more accessible.
Communication Access : Communication that is clear, comfortable and easy to understand and interact with regardless of prefereed style of communicaton (spoken, written, face to face, remote, everyday topic, complex, theoretical debates)
To enhanve communication access by being better, faster, clearer between everyone.